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And the only granting of difference is not enough to account for the widespread Puerto Rican apathy to the Vieques struggle. Finally, as mentioned earlier, it is very significant that a film which attempts to represent how a whole society is affected by the military presence, does not include a single woman’s voice. The “we/they” dichotomy, because it does not build on the “we” but rather on fixed oppositions, results in an oversimplification of the political forces at play in the process. Thus, the emphasis of the film is the “exposing” of the military’s callousness rather than the complex “internal” issues which women of puerto rico greatly contribute to this state of affairs. One crucial issue not addressed in the film concerns the reasons why, despite the obvious military abuse in Vieques, there is not a more widespread movement in Vieques and on Puerto Rico to expel the military. The reasons for this are not only related to the political economy but popular feelings about the United States. The avoidance of these much more thorny issues results in the creation of victims’ narratives where Puerto Rican history is inscribed as a David and Goliath myth so that the master narrative of anti-imperialism obscures other relevant aspects.

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So many women were employed in the island’s main industries, the Puerto Rican labor unions needed to organize female labor. The early start and spread of female mass education is responsible for the current large number of powerful professional women playing an active part in Puerto Rican society. The above-mentioned phenomenon indicates that the US educational policy was responsible for the diffusion of a public education system on the island and this caused the spread of female education that brought about a foundation of feminism. Today the rate of women in higher education is very high, 159 females per 100 men. Relating to female education in 19th century in Puerto Rico, a famous example of equal opportunity in education between sexes was the establishment of a school for girls by Ms. Celestina Cordero.

Included are books, journal articles, dissertations, seminar/workshop papers , documentary video (provides first-hand testimonies from women who have undergone the procedure and government officials involved in the family planning program). The bibliographical sources selected provide a multi-disciplinary approach to researching the subject. In the case of sterilization, the subject of this bibliography, between the 1930s and the 1970s approximately one-third of Puerto Rico’s female population of childbearing age had undergone the operation, the highest rate in the world. So common was the practice that the words “sterilization” and “la operacion” were used interchangeably. The massive sterilization of Puerto Rican females warrants that their experience be brought to the forefront, and there’s the hope that this bibliography will stimulates interest and further research in the subject. It’s national names say which is with frightening”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 14,. Retrieved October 3,. Retrieved September 23,. Kehoe and E.

While similarities of breast cancer experiences exist within Latin subgroups, aspects experienced by Puerto Rican women might be unique to them. Unique elements of a lived experience in a particular group can be influenced by sociocultural norms, behaviors, and beliefs. While the streets of San Juan were quieter on Thursday night after a huge showing on Wednesday, more actions are planned for Monday. The people of Puerto Rico don’t appear to be willing to stand down until Rosselló is removed from office.

However, as in the rest of the industrial world, women have made inroads into the formerly male world of business and sports, particularly in urban areas. At one time it was common practice among the island’s most traditional families for young women to be accompanied by chaperones in the form of an aunt or older sister when they began dating, but that practice is quickly vanishing. When the United States took control of Puerto Rico in 1898, the island underwent another enormous cultural transformation. English became a common second language, and has at times been proclaimed the official language. American corporations set up shop, bringing with them an influx of American expatriates whose ways of dress, cuisine, and art were integrated into the existing culture. Much of this influence came in the form of the military, due to the many military bases that were established on the island. Some people credit that influence on the relative stability and orderliness of public life, particularly as compared to other Caribbean islands.

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In Puerto Rico, fertility control developed under colonialism in the early 20th century, after the Caribbean archipelago had been seized by the United States in the Spanish-American War of 1898. To solve the alleged problem, government officials instituted policies that, among other things, reduced births through sterilization.

Education has been one of the most outstanding areas where Puerto Rican women have struggled. Their battles for daycare have stretched from New York City to many other cities on the East Coast particularly in when President Nixon was continually coming up with new plans to cut back what few centers there were.

The government started a new industrialization policy and national economic growth increased rapidly. It was a time of rapid economic growth in the 1950s when the advance of industrialization caused rapid urbanization in Puerto Rico. After the 1960s, urban housing, car society and consumer society appeared. Women were being educated more highly, women’s opportunities for economic independence were increasing, and they started to work as professionals and also started to work in the political area. This transformation of female roles in the society converted the women’s identity from being associated only with the home to being a producer. This new female role and identity didn’t match the old role that was assigned to women in Spanish traditional culture.

Her niece, Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier, has been recognized as one of the island’s great poets. The two female contributors to Aguinaldo puertorriqueño , are Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier and Benicia Aguayo. It is the first book dedicated exclusively to Puerto Rican authors. These women expressed their patriotic and social demands through their writing.

On his recommendation, Rose was appointed as a warrant officer, one of only 11 women warrant officers in the Marine Corps at that time. She was then assigned as the adjutant and congressional inquiry officer of a staging battalion in Camp Pendleton, California. CWO3 Franco looks back on a prestigious and significant career with the US Marine Corps.